External Beam Radiotherapy Interdigitated with High Dose Rate(HDR) Intracavitary Brachytherapy versus External Beam Radiotherapy followed by Sequential HDR Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Locally Advanced Carcinoma Cervix–Randomized Control Study

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Radiotherapy, King George’s Medical College, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

2 Kalyan Singh Super speciality Cancer Institute, Lucknow, India.


Background: In cervical cancer treatment, overall treatment time (OTT) is an important prognostic factor. This study compares the clinical outcomes when High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary-Brachytherapy(HDR-ICRT) is interdigitated with external beam radiotherapy(EBRT) versus sequential HDR-ICRT after EBRT in the treatment of locally advanced carcinoma cervix. Methods: Histologically confirmed carcinoma cervix patients [FIGO Stage IIB–IVA (except IIIC-2)] were included and randomized into two groups. The study group received EBRT 50Gy in 25 fractions with interdigitated HDR-ICRT 7Gy per fraction weekly for three fractions starting after completion of 3 weeks of EBRT or as soon as cervical os became negotiable thereafter. Patients in the control group received EBRT 50Gy in 25 fractions with sequential HDR-ICRT 7Gy per fraction weekly for three fractions starting one week after completion of EBRT. All patients were regularly followed up during and after radiotherapy for local toxicity and disease control. Results: This study enrolled 102 patients; 51 in each arm. Median OTT in study and control arm were 46 and 60 days, respectively. Median follow-up duration was 24 months (two years). Loco-regional control after two years of follow-up was 84.31 % and 72.54% of patients in study arm control arm respectively (p-value 0.148). Two (3.92%) patients from study arm and eight (15.68%) from control arm had residual disease. Two patients in study arm and one from control arm had local recurrence. Two patients from study arm three patients from control arm developed distant metastases. RTOG mucosal grade III acute mucosal toxicity in either arm. Cervical-os negotiability was limiting factor for interdigitated HDR-ICRT. Conclusions: Interdigitated HDR-ICRT with EBRT may give local control with manageable toxicities as compared to sequential HDR-ICRT, with the advantage of significant reduction in OTT.


Main Subjects

Volume 24, Issue 10
October 2023
Pages 3441-3445
  • Receive Date: 06 April 2023
  • Revise Date: 25 August 2023
  • Accept Date: 16 October 2023
  • First Publish Date: 16 October 2023