In-vitro Antioxidant Activity and Flow Cytometric Analysis of Simarouba glauca DC Bark Extract Induced Apoptosis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells

Document Type : Research Articles


Environmental Biology and Green Nanotechnology Laboratory, P. G. Department of Studies in Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad, India.


Objective: Ethnomedicinally Simarouba glauca DC is an important plant containing major class of phenols and terpenoids as bioactive compounds. The present study focuses on the evaluation of the anticancer effects of S. glauca bark UAE-EA (Ultrasonicator Assisted Extraction – Ethyl Acetate) fraction (SG-Fraction) against MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer cell lines. Methods: UAE-EA technique was used for the extraction of phytochemicals from S. glauca bark. Fractionation method was carried out to obtain Ethyl acetate fraction and PPS, TPC, and DPPH assays were performed to characterize the extract. MTT assay was then applied to analyse the viability of cells and MMP assay to confirm the initiation of drug induced apoptosis. Apoptotic morphology and quantification were assessed by DAPI and Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining. Results: UAE yielded 53g of crude extract in methanol. 16g Ethyl acetate fraction was obtained from fractionation. Phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, and triterpenoids were detected. The TPC was 278.65 mg GAE/100ml. The SG-Fraction showed maximum 66.38% RSA at 200 µg/ml and IC50 value was 101.72 µg/ml. MMP confirmed the induction of apoptosis. DAPI showed the reduction of nuclei with bright chromatin condensation, blebbing, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies. Annexin-V FITC/PI study showed 59.48% apoptosis induction. This fraction showed a similar trend of antioxidant effect as compared to ascorbic acid but, prominently lower cell viability than Camptothecin (P<0.005). In line with higher TPC in the SG-fraction, free radical scavenging activity was increased (r = 0.098**, p=0.002) and cell viability was reduced significantly (r = -0.097*** p<0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that UAE-EA fraction of S. glauca bark inhibits the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells and can be considered for further neo-adjuvant chemotherapy drug research. 


Main Subjects

Volume 25, Issue 1
January 2024
Pages 201-210
  • Receive Date: 26 August 2023
  • Revise Date: 19 October 2023
  • Accept Date: 19 January 2024
  • First Publish Date: 19 January 2024