Design and Development of Gold/reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite loaded with Cyclophosphamide: Potential Application in Treatment of Breast Cancer

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Chemistry Department, College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah / Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.

2 Medical Chemistry Department, College of Medicine, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.

3 College of Biotechnology, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.


Objective: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a widely used anti-cancer drug. It works by alkylation and is commonly used in cancer treatment. In this study, the goal was to create biodegradable drug delivery carriers with minimal side effects for breast cancer treatment by developing gold nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (Au-rGO) nanocomposites using a sustainable synthesis method and loading them with cyclophosphamide. Methods: Cyclophosphamide-loaded gold/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (Au-rGOCP) were synthesized and evaluated using FT-IR, XRD, release pattern, and FE-SEM techniques. Furthermore, the anticancer effect against breast cancer cells was evaluated through MTT and Annexin V assays. CAT, SOD, and GPx biomarkers were used to assess the antioxidant effect of the free and nano-formulated cyclophosphamide. Results: The characterization results showed the effective loading of cyclophosphamide in the nanocarriers. Additionally, Au-rGO had a higher drug loading capacity for cyclophosphamide during a 24-hour contact period (92.34%). The pH value affected the amount of cyclophosphamide released from the nanocarriers. Au-rGO/CP displayed significant in vitro anti-cancer activity against MCF-7 cancer cells relative to free CP and rGO/CP. According to Annexin V assay results, Au-rGO/CP induced a higher apoptosis rate in MCF-7 breast cancer cells than other forms. Conclusion: In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the gold-decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite enhances treatment efficacy and significantly increases apoptosis and cell death induction. As a result, CP-loaded Au-rGO-based compounds could be a promising treatment for breast cancer.


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