Exploring Indonesian Primary Schoolgirls’ Experiences of School-based HPV Vaccination, Knowledge of HPV Risks and Prevention, and Preferences for Cervical Cancer Education

Document Type : Research Articles


Nossal Institute for Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.


Objective: In 2016, Indonesia introduced its Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination demonstration program for girls in grades 5 and 6 of primary school, to reduce cervical cancer (CC) burden in selected provinces and test the viability of nationwide vaccination. This study explored schoolgirls’ experience of school-based HPV vaccination, their knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccination, and their preferences for cervical cancer (CC) education. Methods: An online survey was conducted with schoolgirls who experienced HPV vaccination between 2019 and 2021 through the demonstration program. Using purposive sampling, respondents were recruited through partnerships with primary public health centres and primary schools in Jakarta and Yogyakarta. Data analysis was conducted using Chi-square test, Independent-samples t-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results: One hundred and forty primary schoolgirls with a mean age of 12.2 years (SD = 0.70) completed the survey. Schools and mothers were identified as key actors in socialising children about important health information and as girls’ preferred sources of information. The average summed score for girls’ knowledge of HPV, the HPV vaccine, and CC after being vaccinated was 5.07 out of 10 (SD 0.23). Significant differences in the mean knowledge scores among participants with different preferences regarding CC education in school were observed. Conclusion: While schoolgirls’ experiences of HPV vaccination were largely positive, their knowledge of critical health information regarding HPV vaccination and CC prevention needs improving. Thus, it is necessary to provide parents, and school-based educators with culturally appropriate strategies and comprehensive evidence-based information about HPV vaccination and CC prevention more effectively to children. 


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