A comprehensive Study of the Out of Field Non Target Dose Associated with 6 and 10 MV Flattened and Flattening Filter Free X Ray Beam in a True Beam Linear Accelerator

Document Type : Methodological papers


1 Department of Radiological Physics, SP Medical college, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India.

2 Swasthya Kalyan group of Institutions, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

3 Department of Radiotherapy, SP Medical college, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India.


Aim: To evaluate the out-of-field dose associated with flattened (FF) and flattening filter-free (FFF) 6 and 10 MV X-ray beams in a TrueBeam linear accelerator (Linac). Materials and Methods: Measurements were taken in a slab phantom using the metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) detector at varying depths (dmax, 5 cm, and 10 cm) for clinically relevant field sizes and up to 30 cm from the field edges for 6 and 10 MV FF and FFF beams in TrueBeam Linac. Dose calculation accuracy of the analytic anisotropic algorithm (AAA) and Acuros algorithm was investigated in the out-of-field region. Similarly, the out-of-field dose associated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) head-and-neck plan delivered to a body phantom was evaluated. Results: The out-of-field dose for both FF and FFF photon beams (6 and 10 MV) decreased with increasing distance from the field boundary and size. Furthermore, regardless of FF in the field, higher-energy photon beams were associated with lower out-of-field dose. Both algorithms underestimated the dose in the out-of-field region, with AAA failing to calculate the out-of-field dose at 15 cm from the field edge and Acuros failing to calculate out-of-field radiation at 20 cm. At 5 cm from the field edge, an average of 50% underestimation was observed, and at 10 cm, an average of 60% underestimation was observed for both FF and FFF (6 and 10 MV) beams. The VMAT head-and-neck plan performed with the FFF beam resulted in a lower out-of-field dose than the FF beam for a comparable dose distribution. Conclusion: Compared with flattened beams, the FFF modes on TrueBeam Linac exhibited a clinically relevant reduction in the out-of-field dose. Further dosimetric studies are warranted to determine the significant benefit of FFF beams across different cancer sites.


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