Association between CTX-1 and Fibulin-1 Serum Levels with Pathogenesis of Multiple Myeloma Cancer

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak, Iran.

2 Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Iraq.


Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most prevalent blood cancer after non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is identified by the excessive production of abnormal monoclonal immunoglobulins, which can result in various clinical symptoms such as destructive bone lesions, renal dysfunction, anemia, and immunodeficiency. The current study aims to evaluate the serum levels of carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks 1 (CTX-1), Fibulin-1, vitamin D3, LDH, and albumin in MM patients and their significance for early diagnosis. Materials and Methods: This study included 30 healthy controls (11 males, 19 females) and 60 patients with multiple myeloma (37 males and 23 females), aged between 40-60 years. Five-milliliter blood samples were collected and stored at -20°C. Afterward, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were used to estimate the concentrations of CTX-1, Fibulin-1, and vitamin D3. Additionally, LDH and albumin levels were determined using the automated biochemistry analyzer. Results: This study revealed that the majority of patients with multiple myeloma are between the ages of 51 and 60 years. The serum concentrations of CTX-1, Fibulin-1, and LDH were significantly increased in the multiple myeloma patients compared to the healthy control group. In contrast, the serum level of vitamin D3 was significantly decreased in patients with MM. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the incidence of multiple myeloma is higher in males than in females. Additionally, the serum concentrations of CTX-1 and Fibulin-1 were significantly higher in the multiple myeloma patients compared to the healthy control group, indicating their potential for early detection and as therapeutic targets.


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