Acceptance of Self-Sampling and Knowledge about Human Papillomavirus among Women in Mongolia

Document Type : Research Articles


1 National Cancer Council of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

2 National Center for Public Health, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

3 Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

4 Onoshmed Clinical Laboratory, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.


Background: Mongolia faces a significant burden of cervical cancer, with the highest prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in the region. Cervical cancer ranks as the third most common cancer among women in the country. This study aimed to assess the acceptance of self-sampling among young women in Mongolia and evaluate their knowledge regarding HPV and cervical cancer. Methods: In this study, participants provided a self-administered vaginal swabs to detect high-risk HPV genotypes. Both acceptability of self-sampling using swabs and participants knowledge regarding HPV and cervical cancer through a scored questionnaire were assessed.  The knowledge scale was categorized into three groups: low (0-2), moderate (3-4) and high (5-6). Results: A total of 203 women aged 24-28 years completed the questionnaire and provided self-administered vaginal swabs. The majority (95.1%) found self-sampling technique using Copan Self Vaginal FLOQSwabs® easy to perform. Additionally, 98.5% indicated that the self-swab instructions were clear and comprehensive, while 94.1% reported no pain during the process. Furthermore, 67.8% of participants expressed a preference for performing the swab in a clinic rather than at home. All respondents chose self-sampling due to greater personal privacy, tranquility, reduced anxiety and time optimization. The questionnaire results revealed an overall low level of knowledge about HPV among participants, with a mean score at 1.9 out of 6 [95%CI 1.67-2.21] and a moderate level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer risks, with a mean score at 3.7 out of 6 [95%CI 3.19-4.21]. This pattern was consistent across both vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, indicating a strong demand for enhanced awareness of HPV and cervical cancer. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the high acceptance of self-sampling among young women aged 24-28 years in Mongolia. However, it also  underscores a significant need for improved awareness initiatives concerning HPV and cervical cancer in Mongolia. 


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