In India, among males, leukemia rates vary across the country. The present unmatched hospital-based casecontrolstudy conducted at Tata Memorial Hospital included subjects registered between the years 1997-99.There were 246 leukemia cases and 1,383 normal controls. Data on demographics, lifestyle, diet and occupationhistory were recorded. Cigarette (OR=2.1) and bidi smoking (OR=3.4) showed excess risk for leukemia. Oddsratios were 3.9 for fish-eaters, 0.40 for chilli eaters, 1.5 for milk drinkers and 0.60 for coffee drinkers, comparedto non-drinkers/eaters. However, neither exposure to use of pesticides nor cotton dust showed any excess riskfor leukemia.