Exploratory Investigation of Genetic Associations with Basal Cell Carcinoma Risk: Genome-Wide Association Study in Jeju Island, Korea


Aim: Little is known about the genetic associations with Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) risk in non-Caucasian populations, in which BCC is rare, as in Korea. We here conducted a pilot genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 12 patients and 48 standard controls.
Method: A total of 263,511 SNPs were analyzed with theIllumina HumanOmni1 Quad v1.0 DNA Analysis BeadChip for cases and Korean HapMap 570K for controls.
Results: SNP-based analyses, based on the allele genetic model with adjustment for sex and age showed suggestive associations with BCC risk for 6 SNPs with a P-value (P < 0.0005). However, these associations were not statistically significant after Bonferroni correction: rs1040503, rs2216491, rs13407683, rs4751072, rs9891263, and rs1368474. In addition, results from gene-based analyses showed suggestive associations with BCC risk for 33 candidate genes with a P-value (P <0.0005). Consistent with previous GWAS and replication studies in Caucasian populations, PADI6, RHOU and SLC45A2 were identified as having null associations with BCC (P > 0.05), likely due to the smaller sample size.
Conclusions: Although this was a small-scale negative study, to our knowledge, we have conducted the first GWAS for BCC risk in an Asian population. Further large studies in non-Caucasian populations are required to achieve statistical significance and confirm these findings.