Uterine Sarcoma: Clinical Presentation, Treatment and Survival Outcomes in Thailand


Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok, Thailand


Background: Uterine sarcoma is a group of rare gynecologic tumors with various natures, and different lines of treatment. Most have a poor treatment outcome. This study targeted clinical characteristics, treatment, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and prognostic factors in uterine sarcoma patients in one tertiary center for cancer care. Materials and Methods: Uterine sarcoma patients who were treated at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital between January 1994 and December 2014 were identified. Clinico-pathological data were analyzed. Prognostic outcomes were examined by Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis. Results: We identified 46 uterine sarcoma patients: 25 carcinosarcoma (CS) (54.3%), 15 leiomyosarcoma (LMS) (32.6%), and 6 undifferentiated uterine sarcoma (UUS) (13.1%) cases. Mean age was 54.011.9 years (range 25-82 years). Abnormal uterine bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (63.0%). Among 33 patients (71.7%) who had pre-operative tissue collected, diagnosis of malignancy was correct in 29 (87.9%). All patients received primary surgery and retroperitoneal lymph nodes were resected in 34 (73.9%). After surgery, 5 (10.9%) had gross residual tumors. Stage I disease was most commonly found (56.5%). Adjuvant treatment was given to 27 (58.7%), most commonly chemotherapy. After a median follow-up of 16.0 months (range 0.8-187.4 months), recurrence was encountered in 22 patients (47.8%). Median time to recurrence was 5.8 months (range1.0-105.5 months). Distant metastasis was more common than local or loco- regional failure. The 2-year PFS was 45.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.6%-59.7%) and the 2-year OS was 48.3% (95% CI, 33.3%-60.7%). Multivariable analyses found residual disease after surgery as a significant factor only for PFS. Conclusions: Uterine sarcoma is a rare tumor entity. Even with multimodalities of treatment, the prognosis is still poor. Successful cytoreductive surgery is a key factor for a good survival outcome.