Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Indonesia: Lack of Improvement of One-Year Survival Rates between 1998-1999 and 2013-2014


Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia


Background: The survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is usually low due to late diagnosis. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital as the largest tertiary referral hospital in Indonesia, has recently improved its modalities for advanced HCC management, but there has not been any evaluation on any improvement in HCC patient survival. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis on 114 HCC patients in 2013-2014 were conducted and compared with the database for 77 HCC patients in 1998-1999. Clinical characteristics and treatment received were recorded and the survival of both groups was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Results: The percentage of HBV positive patients had increased after fifteen years from 32.5% to 67.5%. Only two patients (1.8%) in 2013-2014 were diagnosed with HCC during surveillance program. Proportions of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer A, B, C, and D in 2013-2014 were 1.8%, 42%, 28.1%, and 28.1%, respectively. There was an increase in the use of potentially curative treatment, such as surgical resection or combination of loco-regional therapies. The one-year survival rate increased from 24.1% in 1998-1999 to 29.4% in 2013-2014, while the median survival decreased from 146 days to 138 days, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.913). Conclusions: There was no improvement in the median survival of HCC patients after fifteen years because most continued to present at late stages. There is an urgent need for a nationwide implementation of a hepatitis screening program and HCC surveillance education.