Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Adults - an Analysis of 51 Cases from a Tertiary Care Center in Pakistan


Department of Hematology and Blood bank, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan


Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disease in which early lymphoid precursors proliferate and replace the normal hematopoiesis. It has distinctive clinical and biological features. In respect to adult ALL, available data from Pakistan are limited. Therefore we reviewed the demographical and clinico- hematological profiles along with FAB stratification of adult patients with ALL presented at our hospital. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 51 adults (15 years) patients with ALL were enrolled from January 2010 to December 2014. Results: The mean age was 23.812.9 years with the median age of 18.0 years. The male to female ratio was 2:1. The major complaints were fever (60.7%), generalized weakness (47.0%), overt bleeding (19.6%) and weight loss (13.7%). Physical examination revealed lymphodenopathy as a predominant finding detected in 43.1% followed by splenomegaly and hepatomegaly in 23.5% and 21.5%, respectively. The mean hemoglobin level was 9.02.75g/dl with a mean MCV of 82.215.4 fl, a mean total leukocyte count of 31.164.0x109/l, a mean ANC of 2.13.0 x109/l and a mean platelet count of 71.785.7x109/l. According to FAB classification, 47.1% were L1 type, 45.1% L2 and 7.8% L3 variant. Conclusions: Clinico-pathological features appeared comparable to published data. Febrile illness associated with lymphodenopathy was the commonest presentation. FAB classification revealed a predominance of ALL-L1 variant in Pakistani adult patients with ALL.