Association between Dietary and Lifestyle Indices and Colorectal Cancer in Oman: A Case-Control Study

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman.

2 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman.

3 Department of Food Science and Nutrition College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman.

4 Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman.


Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled
growth and spread of abnormal cells in the body. CRC vary on the basis of both the biologic features of the disease and its
associated lifestyle characteristics. The risk of CRC increases with several modifiable factors including obesity, physical
inactivity, a diet high in red or processed meat, heavy alcohol consumption, and possibly inadequate intake of fruits and
vegetables. We aimed to establish a baseline data for dietary and lifestyle characteristics of Omani adults diagnosed
with CRC. Methods: A Case control study conducted at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, a referral hospital for CRC
patients in Oman, and included 279 subjects (109 diagnosed CRC cases and 170 matched controls). All study subjects
were recruited on volunteer basis and personally interviewed for preset questions related to sociodemographic data,
anthropometric assessment, dietary intake and physical activity. Results: There was no significant difference between
cases and controls regarding smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity and dietary fiber intake. However the enrolled
cases were more overweight (OR =3.27. 95% CI: 1.91, 7.27), and, had a higher caloric (p =0.001) and macronutrient
intake (carbohydrate: p = 0.001; protein: p = 0.017; saturated fat: P = 0.034) than the controls. In addition, the dietary
pattern of the cases was characterized by a trend towards low vegetables and fruits intake. Conclusion: CRC maybe
prevented through dietary management of high risk groups. This primary prevention approach will ultimately reduce
the burden of CRC in Oman.




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