Cigarette Consumption Patterns of Non-Smokers, Occasional Smokers, and Daily Smokers in Selected ASEAN Countries

Document Type : Research Articles


1 International College, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang City, Jiangxi Province, China.

2 School of Social Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia.


Background: This study investigates the socio-demographic factors associated with smoking status in five Southeast Asian countries: Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Philippines. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilizes data of adults ≥15 years who completed the Global Adult Tobacco Surveys. Ordered probit analysis is used to account for the smoking statuses of non-smokers, occasional smokers, and daily smokers. Results: Malaysian and Vietnamese households with more family members face lower smoking likelihoods than otherwise. Urbanites in Philippines and rural residents in Thailand and Indonesia are more likely to smoke on occasional and daily basis than others. Males are consistently more likely to smoke occasionally or daily and less likely to be non-smokers than females across all countries. Younger middle-age (retiree) individuals aged 30-35 (≥60) years in Malaysia and Thailand exhibit higher (lower) likelihoods to smoke occasionally or daily than their younger cohorts aged 15-29 years. Individuals aged 30 years and above in Indonesia, Vietnam, and Philippines display higher daily smoking propensities than others. Higher education levels dampens smoking likelihoods and increases non-smoking propensities in all countries. Non-government or self-employed workers in all countries are more likely to smoke occasionally or daily than unemployed persons. Being married is associated with higher non-smoking likelihoods in Thailand although this association is not evident in Malaysia.Conclusion: These findings suggest that a portfolio of targeted interventions is necessary to meet the needs of specific subpopulations within the various countries.


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