Detection of IDH1 Mutation in cfDNA and Tissue of Adult Diffuse Glioma with Allele-Specific qPCR

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Pathology, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

2 Department of Biosciences, Integral University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

3 Department of Bioengineering, Integral University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.


Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors necessitates testing of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1/2 gene mutation in patients with adult-type diffuse glioma (ADG) for better disease management. In clinical practice, the testing of IDH1 is primarily achieved using immunohistochemistry (IHC) specific to IDH1-R132, which carries a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100%. However, in some cases, non-specific background staining or regional heterogeneity in the protein expression of IDH1 may necessitate confirmatory genetic analysis. Robust and reliable assays are needed for IDH1/2 mutation testing. The aim of the current study was to detect IDH1 mutation in cfDNA and tissue of adult-type diffuse glioma with allele-specific qPCR. Materials and Methods: In the current study, IDH1-R132H mutation was analyzed in tumor tissue with paired cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in patients with ADG (n = 45) using IHC and competitive allele-specific Taqman PCR (CAST-PCR). Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue and matched serum for cfDNA using commercially available kits. CAST-PCR with IHC for the detection of IDH1-R132H mutation was also compared. Results: The IDH1-R132H mutation was detected in 46.67% (21/45) cases and 57.78% (26/45) cases using IHC and allele-specific CAST-PCR. In cfDNA of matched IDH1-mutant FFPE tissue DNA, IDH1-R132H mutation was detected in 11.54% (3/26) using CAST-PCR. The concordance rate for IDH1-R132Hmutation between IHC and CAST-PCR was 80.77% (21/26). Conclusion: The CAST-PCR assay is more precise and sensitive for  IDH1-R132Hdetection than traditional IHC, and IDH1-R132H mutation detection using cfDNA may add to the current methods of glioma genomic characterization.


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