Document Type : Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Tropical Medicine Graduate Program, Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.
Tropical Disease Research Center, WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Control of Opisthorchiasis, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a prevalent cancer in Southeast Asia, with Opisthorchis viverrini (O.viverrini) infection being the primary risk factor. Most CCA cases in this region are diagnosed at advanced stages, leading to unfavorable prognoses. The development of stage-specific biomarkers for Opisthorchis viverrini-induced cholangiocarcinoma (Ov-CCA) holds crucial significance, as it facilitates early detection and timely administration of curative interventions, effectively mitigating the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with this disease in the Great Mekong region. Biomarkers are a promising approach for early detection, prognosis, and targeted treatment of CCA. Disease-specific biomarkers facilitate early detection and enable monitoring of therapy effectiveness, allowing for any necessary corrections. This review provides an overview of the potential O. viverrini-specific molecular biomarkers and important markers for diagnosing and monitoring Ov-CCA, discussing their prognostic, predictive, and diagnostic value. Despite the limited research in this domain, several potential biomarkers have been identified, encompassing both worm-induced and host-induced factors. This review offers a thorough examination of historical and contemporary progress in identifying biomarkers through multiomics techniques, along with their potential implications for early detection and treatment.